Cells, Cells, Cells

 

Cyndi Blankenship and Pam O’Brien, Lead Weekday Instructors

 

 

Developed with funding from the MathScience Innovation Center

 

 

Major

Understanding

Every living organism is made up of cells. Cells are microscopic and are classified by their parts, called organelles. Each organelle has a specific function within the cell. Cells are classified as eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Eukaryotic cells include plant and animal cells, and prokaryotic cells include bacteria.

 

 

Grade/Subject

Grade 5; Life Science

 

Objectives

Understand that all living organisms are made up of cells.

 

Identify the essential structures and functions of an animal cell and a plant cell.

 

Understand the differences between a Eukaryotic cell (plants and animals) and a Prokaryotic cell (bacteria).

 

Observe how bacteria are spread.

 

State two ways in which the spread of bacteria can be prevented.

 

Analyze the structure of numerical patterns and how they change and grow.

 

Time

Anticipatory Set

5 minutes

 

 

PPT and Discussion (Part 1)

10 minutes

 

 

Activity: Cell Investigation

15 minutes

 

 

PPT and Discussion (Part 2)

5 minutes

 

 

Activity: Preventing the Spread

15 minutes

 

 

Math Break

10 minutes

 

 

Closure

5 minutes

 

 

Practice

Variable

 

 

Assessment

Variable

 

 

Materials

For the class:

 

Laptop computer

LCD projector

QX5 microscope
Installation software for QX5 microscope

Power Point Presentation of Cells, Cells, Cells

Prepared microscope slides of plant and animal cells

Mini UV blacklight

Microbe Model

Glo germ compound

Response cards for Cell Review

 

For each group of students:

 

Plant & Animal Cells worksheet

Math Break worksheet
Colored pencils

Response cards for Cell Review


 

State and National

Correlations

Virginia Standards of Learning: Science (5.1, 5.4); Math (5.20); Life Science (LS.3)

 

National Science Education Standards: Living systems at all levels of organization; Demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function; All organisms are composed of cells, the fundamental unit of life; Most organisms are single celled, other organisms, including humans are multi-cellular; Cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life.

 

NCTM Standards:  Develop mental fluency with multiplication and division;  Describe, extend, and make generalizations about numeric patterns;  Collect, data using observations and experiments;  Communicate mathematical thinking to peers.

 

Instructional

Strategies

1. Anticipatory Set

 

1.1 Begin the power point presentation. Have students try to identify the different images. Each of these images shows part and then all of a living organism. Introduce the idea that all living organisms are made up of smaller parts. What is the smallest part of a living organism is called? (a cell)

 

1.2 All living organisms are made up of cells. Cells were first discovered in the 1600’s. Since that time scientists have been studying cells and making new discoveries of cell structure and cell function. Today we are going to join those scientists and investigate cells.

 

1.3 These ideas hold true for all cells and are known as the Cell Theory.

·         All living organisms are made up of cells.

·         Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism

·         All cells arise from other cells

 

2. Identifying Plant & Animal Cells (Eukaryotic) PPT (Part 1)

 

2.1 Scientists classify cells into 2 groups: eukaryotic (plants and animals) and prokaryotic (bacteria).

 

*Note: at this point only eukaryotic cells are discussed

 

2.1 Basic Cell Structure. Hand out cell worksheets and colored pencils to students. Follow the progress of the power point and explain each part of the cell and its function while students follow along and complete their own cell sheet. After the students have completed their sheet show them the animal cell and plant cell slide in the power point. Discuss how these pictures were taken.

 

3. Introducing the Digital Microscope

 

3.1 Introduce the digital microscope and discuss how it is used as a scientific tool.

 

3.2 Demonstrate scale to the class by using the following…

·         use a student’s height. (0x:5 ft.; 10x:50 ft.; 60x:300 ft.; 200x: 1000ft.)

·         show your finger at the three levels of magnification.

·         show a five dollar bill at the three levels of magnification. (at 60x the names of the fifty states can be seen on the Lincoln memorial and at 200x only letters within the names can be seen)

                                                    

4. Cell Identification

 

4.1 Eukaryotic Cell Identification. Using a digital microscope show the class different cell slides. Identify slides as plant cells or animal cells as a class.

 

*Note: Prepared slides have been preserved with chemicals and stained.  The slides used in this lesson are cross sections of specimens and are best viewed at 200x magnification.  You will be able to identify the cell membrane, cell wall, and darkened nucleus.

 

5. Identifying Bacteria (Prokaryotic) PPT (Part 2) 

 

5.1 Prokaryotic Cells. Ask the students if they can classify the prokaryotic cell. Have the students look for a cell wall, cell membrane, and cell nucleus. Point out there is not a structured nucleus. This is a bacteria cell. Follow the power point to introduce prokaryotic cells. Briefly discuss the bacteria cell as compared to the plant and animal cell. Show the model of the bacteria cell and explain that this model is enlarged one million times.  Allow the students to pass the model.

 

 

 

 

6.           Helpful or Harmful Bacteria 

 

6.1 As the model is passed discuss with students if bacteria is helpful or harmful. Are bacteria important? Do they affect us?

·         Good:  Nitrogen Cycle-take nitrogen from the air and release into the soil for plant use, Recycling-break down organic waste, Bioremediation-Scientists using bacteria to clean up pollution-oil spills, Food and Medicines-Antibiotics, Cheeses, Pickles, Sour Cream, Sour Dough Bread

·         Bad: Diseases in Plants (Blight), Animals and People (Pneumonia, Cavities, Ulcers, Strep Throat, Food Poisoning, Lyme Disease, Typhoid Fever)

 

7. The Spread

 

7.1 Ask students for ideas on how bacteria are spread in the environment. Bacteria are spread by plants, animals, people, water, & soil. (PPT slide)

Tell the students that we have spread bacteria during this class.

 

7.2 Pass the UV blacklight and ask student if their hands are glowing? Glow germ causes bacteria to glow on the skin under UV light. Is all this bacteria bad for you? No. Can we tell the difference between the good and bad bacteria by looking? No. We would need a very powerful microscope.

 

7.3 Discuss ways we can stop the spread of bacteria:  hand washing, washing fruits and vegetables, properly preparing foods, using antibacterial products. Remind students to wash their hands at the conclusion of the lesson.

 

8. Math Break

 

8.1 In an ideal growing environment some bacteria can divide into two bacteria every twenty minutes. Pass out the Math Break I worksheet with the flow chart and have students solve. How many bacteria would there be at the end of an hour? (eight-remember they will multiply exponentially)

 

8.2 Now have the students transfer what they have learned onto the Math Break II Chart. Allow the students to continue the growth pattern to solve for the additional time periods. Why are we not overtaken by bacteria? (Bacteria do not always have an ideal environment to grow in.)

 

9. Cell Review

 

9.1 Assess student knowledge with the cell game questions on the Power Point.

 

 

 

 

 

Practice

1.      Have the students construct a 3-dimensional model of either an animal or a plant cell using various materials. Have the students label each part of the cell appropriately. For ideas on different cell model ideas refer to Cells for Kids located at http://www.kathimitchell.com/cells.html.  

 

2.      Wash Up  In a recent poll 94% of people surveyed responded that they wash their hands after using the restroom, however, scientist observed only 68% of people actually wash their hands.  Have students visit and discover the truth behind washing up and its importance at http://www.microbeworld.org/.  Now have students educate their peers and conduct their own survey of who actually washes their hands.  Students can record their data through a chart or graph and share their findings with the class.

 

 

 

Closure

How can scientists benefit from using microscopes as research tools? Why is it important to study living systems at the cellular level? How are bacteria harmful and beneficial to humans and our global ecosystem? Review the cell theory using the power point presentation

 

 

Extensions

1.   Have students explore cells at Cells Alive.  This site contains animated diagrams of cells as well as stunning actual images of different kinds of cells. This website can be found at http://www.cellsalive.com.

 

2.   The Living Cell. Have students transform the classroom into a giant cell. Lesson plan can be found at www.southernco.com/learningpower. Scrolldown to Lesson Plans for Teachers and click once. Scroll down to The Living Cell – grades 3-5 and click once again.

 

3.  Virtual Microscopes   Have students experiment with identifying samples

    of unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. under a virtual electron  

    microscope online at 

    http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/activities/electronmicroscope/

 

4.   Have students visit and discover the truth behind washing up and its

importance at http://www.microbeworld.org/. 

 

 

Assessment

Sample items are provided for use in checking students’ understanding.

Paper-Pencil Test: Cells Cells Cells
Project: Cells Cells Cells

Project Rubric: Cells Cells Cells

 

The following table shows how the assessment items are related to specific objectives.

 

Objective

Paper-Pencil

Test

Product/

Performance

Understand that all living organisms are made up of cells.

1

 

Identify the essential structures and functions of an animal cell and a plant cell.

2, 3

 

Understand the differences between a Eukaryotic cell (plants and animals) and a Prokaryotic cell (bacteria).

5, 6

 

Observe how bacteria are spread

7

 

State two ways in which the spread of bacteria can be prevented

8

 

Analyze the structure of numerical patterns and how they change and grow.

9, 10

 

Every living organism is made up of cells. Cells are microscopic and are classified by their parts, called organelles. Each organelle has a specific function within the cell. Cells are classified as eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Eukaryotic cells include plant and animal cells, and prokaryotic cells include bacteria.

 

 

Have the students construct a 3-dimensional model of either an animal or a plant cell using various materials. Have the students label each part of the cell appropriately. For ideas on different cell model ideas refer to Cells for Kids located at http://www.kathimitchell.com/cells.html.  

 


Teaching Tips

1.          Some tips about the materials used in this lesson: Prior to the lesson add a teaspoon of glo-germ to the bag containing the model. Shaking the bag will evenly cover the model and will provide enough glo-germ for two classes. The teacher can choose to pass the model of the bacteria during the discussion of bacteria, and pass the UV light while the students work in pairs to solve the math break activity. This helps with time management, and student are not sitting and waiting for a turn.

 

2.      Tips for teaching the lesson: Student Cell Diagram - Have students use green to code chloroplasts, and have students leave the cytoplasm white and code as white. Remind students to color organelles the same color in the plant & animal cell. To ensure that all students complete their worksheet, have students color in the key and outline the organelle, then fill in the organelle as time permits

3.      Where do we get the supplies: The microscope used in this lesson can be purchased from Best Buy. The prepared slides can be purchased from Carolina Biological.  Carolina Biological also supplies the UV lights and glo-germ compound used for the bacteria experiment.

4.      Key to Paper-Pencil Test: Cells Cells Cells

 

 

 


References

Biology4Kids

An online resource covering a variety of topics in biology including cell structure and function. Good straight forward information with accompanying diagrams.

http://www.biology4kids.com

 

Sites for photography of cells

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

 

Site for background on bacteria

http://microbeworld.org

 

Site for background information on cells

http://library.thinkquest.org

 

MathScience Innovation Center
Information on educational programs available to students, teachers and school divisions and procedures for registering for programs.
http://msinnovation.info

 

MathScience Innovation Center: On-Line Educational Programs
Learn through on-line virtual classrooms, web-based lessons and on-line courses. Access proven lesson plans and instructional modules.
http://mathinscience.info